May 2023

"Priority 2030": Projects by Young Scientists Awarded Grants Named After V.E. Fortov

We continue to acquaint the readers with the projects by young scientists from Moscow Poly, who have received funding named after V.E. Fortov. The competition is held within the framework of the “Priority 2030” federal program. Moscow Poly participates in the program with its strategic project – “Available electric vehicle”.

The best scientific projects of young scientists of the University will be receiving financial support in the course of the year.

Olga Volodina, lecturer at the department of “Infocognitive Technologies”

Project “Research into the scientific-technical solutions for the application of memory thermal element as a neuromorphic system component”

Neuromorphic systems are artificial analogues of the biological brain. Today scientists in many countries are focusing their attention on the development of this AI area.

“The design of neuromorphic systems capable of imitating biological neurons and synapses and modeling cognitive processes of the human brain is considered to be one of the key research areas in the sphere of artificial intelligence. Research aimed at the development of new computational paradigms and hardware implementation of models of neural networks are moving to a new stage. Nowadays, projects in the field of neuromorphic chips are carried out by many world players - from technology giants to startups”, - says Olga Volodina.

The conducted research aims at forming a neuromorphic system component or, in other words, neural network analogue.

A thermal memory element created earlier by the Moscow Poly scientists is used in the course of the work. It contains information on the electrical impulse applied to it earlier and data processing method. This behavior is determined by the change in the resistance of the memory material, as a result of being heated.

The thermal element is binary-structured and consists of a silicon substrate (Si) and a dusty metallization track (Al). The structure is heated by current pulses, which with a certain amplitude, duration and frequency are fed to the conductive track. The coming heat (Joule) it mainly discharges into a silicon substrate.

According to the scientist, the analysis of the distribution of heat streams will determine the optimal location of the thermal memory elements for the implementation of interaction between them, similar to brain synapses. The thermal flux will ensure a connection between the memory elements located around the element initiating the signal. They plan that it will be possible to create a model of interaction of several thermal memory elements.

“Probably the resulting interaction model will be similar to the work of biological synapses and neurons. This will allow to create neuromorphic systems with their work being drastically different from the existing computer systems”, - says Olga Volodina.

Olga Zaborskaya, senior lecturer at the Project Activity Center

Project – “Development of Complex Engineering and Biological Systems (EBS) for Local Application in Limited Spaces"

Nowadays, the relevance of devices that will create optimal conditions for the preservation, growth and development of various biological objects is growing.

“My project is devoted to designing bioreactors, city farms, hydroponic and aquaponic systems, the development of aquaculture technologies. Application of these smart devices in agrobiotechnology will help to reduce the gap between crop yields in different climate zones, influence the conservation of biodiversity and, if necessary, provide human beings with useful and nutritious products in the necessary amounts”, - says Olga Zaborskaya.

EBS contains interrelated and interacting living elements such as genes, cell parts and cell organelles, as well as cells themselves, organisms). At the same time, the main function of EBS as an engineering system is to create and ensure the effective operation of biological systems of different order. Some EBS are used today for life support in specific conditions, for example, at the research stations in the Arctic, or space.

It`s expected that in the framework of the project there`ll be a technology developed for the environmental clean-up of various types of contaminants for their subsequent implementation and application in closed and open systems. A prototype of the universal EBS will be created in the format of a modular city farm for the use in limited spaces.

The young scientist also develops a construction sketch of an oxygen photo bioreactor - a device for extracting pollutants from a gas-air environment. Its use in spacecrafts will allow to start the transition to autonomous biological life support systems. The unit is designed to produce oxygen and food protein biomasses.

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